New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France starting with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763 at the end of the French and Indian War (in Europe known as The Seven Years War). At its peak in 1712 its territory extended from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.
The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in North America. There were 3215 individuals, 538 separate families. 2,034 men and 1,181 women. 547 people lived in Quebec, 455 in Trois-Rivières, and 625 in Montreal. The first Galarneau family in New France, Jacques Galarneau and his wife Jacqueline Heron (Neron) are listed on the 1666 Census living as tenants on Jesuit land in Charlesbourg near Quebec City.